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Concept of National Ecological Network of the Republic of Moldova


Table of content:

Acknowledgements & Authors

Summary

List of abbreviations

Introduction

1. Ecological Network of Moldova

1.1. Components of Eco-Network

1.2. Geographical Aspects of NENM

1.3. Levels of Components of the Eco-Network

1.4. Eco-Network as Informational System

2. System of Criteria for Estimate of Value of Components of Ecological Network

2.1. Criteria for Attribution of Particular Status to Core Areas with Natural and Semi-Natural Ecosystem Cover

2.2. Criteria for Ranking Areas of the Eco-Network which are Not Core Areas

2.3. Principles for Designating Areas Intended for Ecological Restoration and for Establishing Biological Corridors in Conditions of Excessive Economic Land Use

2.4. Use of Lands for Establishing Biological Corridors and Restoration, which Not Meet Criteria of Areas Intended for Ecological Restoration

3. Operational Checklists

3.1. Operational Checklist of Vascular Plants

3.2. Operational Checklist List of Endemic Vegetation Associations

3.3. Operational List of Insects

3.4. Operational List of Terrestrial Vertebrates

4. Objects of Eco-Network

5. Main Actions Concerning National Eco-Network of Moldova

6. Estimation of Potential and Some Recommendations for Establishing National Ecological Network of Moldova

6.1. Main Conditions for Establishing NENM

6.1.1. Elaborating the Concept of Eco-Network in Moldova

6.1.2. Ecological and Socio-Economical Conditions of Forming Eco-Network

6.1.3. Analysis of Legal Framework for Establishing National Eco-Network

6.2. Comment on Results of Area Estimations, Based on Main Components of Ecological Network of Moldova (by Biological Indicators)

6.2.1. Estimation of Core Areas

6.2.2. Designated Components of Eco-Network in the Structure of the Country’s Area

6.3. Recommendations

6.3.1. Concerning the Development of a System of Management for Natural Protected Areas

6.3.2. Priorities of scientific estimation of core areas

6.3.3. Law on Modification and Completion of some Legislative Acts (Draft)

Conclusion

References

Map of the Ecological Network

 


6.2.2. Designated Components of Eco-Network in The Structure of the Country's Area

In the current state of natural ecosystems in Moldova, two types of biocoenosa can be clearly distinguished – forests and pastures.

  1. Forest areas, irrespective of their quality, mainly have stabilizing geo-systemic effects.

Under established structure of land-use, the areas of forest fund (irrespective of their ownership) comprise ca 12,5 % of the surface area of the country. They are distributed very unevenly (Table 4), comprising 27,5 % of the surface area of Codrii Forest district and 2,7 % of Balti Steppe district.

  1. Commonly, pastures are covered with degraded herbaceous communities, where as a rule, species composition is extremely impoverished, soils are exhausted or washed away.

Table 3.

Distribution of forest area over natural districts

N Name of district Surface area, thousand ha Proportion of forests, %
District Forest
1 Northern-Moldavian forest-steppe 463 47,58 10,3
2 Middle-Prut forest-steppe 293 31,17 10,6
3 Belti steppe 192 5,11 2,7
4 Ciuluc-Olonet steppe 169 16,85 10,0
5 Dniester-Raut forest-steppe 248 36,33 14,6
6 Middle Dniester forest-steppe 192 17,45 9,1
7 Codru forest 474 130,02 27,5
8 Lower Prut forest-steppe 181 14,36 8,0
9 South-Moldavian forest-steppe 355 53,30 15,0
10 Bugeac steppe 321 19,54 6,1
11 Lower Dniester forest-steppe 304 37,06 12,2
12 Lower Dniester steppe 192 14,02 7,3
Total over the country 3384 422,79 12,5


Table 4.

Saturation of biological corridors with core and buffer areas
(Int – International level, N - national, Z - zonal, L - local)

Number and name of corridor Core area surface, ha Geo-systemic buffer, ha Total, ha
Int N Z L N Z L
International biological corridors
1. Prut 7723     7002   373 1285 16383
2. Dniester 585 1774 50 11650   2368 2595 19022
3. North Moldovan       517     155 672
4. South Moldovan   540         10 550
National biological corridors
5. Ialpug 5177 1762 56 6936 4712 2321 729 21693
6.Cahul-Sarata     2519     343 504 3366
7. Reut-Cubolta     73 200   337 846 1456
8. Camanca-Ciugur       17     168 185
9. Larga                
10. Dniester-Prut   6142   680     791 7613
11. Dniester-Ialpug 1100     1387     519 3005
12. Reut             127 127
Local biological corridors
13. Racovat       48 1353 4325 238 5964
14. Nistru-Raut         2634     2634
15. Ciuluc     149         149
16. Iagorlic   836           836
17. Nirnova               0
18. Grigoriopol               0
19. Salcea       307     64 371
20. Ustia         1162     1162


These areas present the centres of desertification. All should be restored under one or another procedure, and this is the only alternative to complete degradation. Potentially, the productivity of such areas (ca 11 % of the area of the country) can be significantly raised, but depends on the level of soil degradation. The main prerequisite is full change of grazing system. In the context of the issue under discussion, these are restoration areas, for which the need of designation for restoring should be preconditioned by the issue of ensuring unity of the Eco-Network. From this standpoint, especially eroded areas present another reserve.

At present, the surface areas of main biological corridors, covered with geo-systemic buffers and core areas, were identified (Table 5).

Surface areas of corridors, covered with the lands of restoration areas and water-protection bank strips, can be identified only in case of survey at a different scale.

Saturation of the country’s natural districts with main non-linear components of Eco-Network is very uneven (Table 5).

Table 5.

Distribution of core and buffer areas over natural districts
(Int – International level, N - national, Z - zonal, L - local)

N Name of district Surface area, thousand ha Core areas (CA), ha Geo-systemic buffer areas (GB), ha Share of CA and GB in the structure of district
Int N Z L N Z L thousand ha %
1 Northern-Moldavian forest-steppe 463 585 1100   3091 1353 6330 2421 14.9 3.2
2 Middle-Prut forest-steppe 293 6032     8061 1162   383 15.6 5.3
3 Belti steppe 192     149 200     128 0.5 0.3
4 Ciuluc-Olonet steppe 169     73       827 0.9 0.5
5 Dniester-Raut forest-steppe 248   1174   250 3683 306   5.4 2.2
6 Middle Dniester forest-steppe 192   836   8700   394 216 10.2 5.3
7 Codrii forest 474 5177 7404   8532 4712 2694 2011 30.5 6.4
8 Lower Prut forest-steppe 181 1691     30   343 1319 3.4 1.9
9 South-Moldavian forest-steppe 355     2575 1647     842 5.1 1.4
10 Bugeac steppe 321 50 540   884     90 1.6 0.5
11 Lower Dniester forest-steppe 304     2218       133 2.4 0.8
12 Lower Dniester steppe 192 7300   50 970     770 9.1 4.7

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Last updated - 19.02.04
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